Total Dissolved Solids

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What is TDS?  Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is a measure of the sum of all inorganic and organic substances in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular colloidal suspended form. The solids must be small enough to survive filtration through a sieve the size of two micrometers.

TDS solids are normally found in all freshwater systems. TDS in surface waters come from the solvent action of water in contact with minerals in the earth, agricultural and residential run-off, leaching of soil contamination, and used water from industrial or sewage treatment plants. Common chemical constituents are calcium, sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphates and nitrates. They may be cations, anions, molecules or agglomerations of molecules, so long as they are soluble. The United States and Canada have a secondary water quality standard of 500 mg/L TDS or less for palatable drinking water.

Most TDS applications are used to monitor dissolved solids levels and dilute with fresh water to avoid scale which reduces heat transfer efficiency increasing costs. Common applications include, cooling tower blowdown, boiler blowdown, purity suitability monitoring for a purpose, reverse osmosis, desalination for taste. As well as monitoring incoming raw water TDS purity, and effluent water TDS for compliance.

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